A goiter is an unusually enlarged thyroid gland. It may happen only for a short time and may go away on its own without treatment. Or it could be a symptom of another thyroid disease that requires treatment. Goiter is more common in women than in men and especially in women before menopause. Some common causes of goiter include:
Thyroid cancerUsually, the only symptom of a goiter is a swelling in your neck. It may be large enough that you can see it or feel the lump with your hand. A very large goiter can also cause a tight feeling in your throat, coughing, or problems swallowing or breathing. Your doctor will do tests to see if it is caused by another thyroid disease.
Thyroiditis is inflammation of the thyroid. It happens when the body's immune system makes antibodies that attack the thyroid. Causes of thyroiditis include: Autoimmune diseases, like type 1 diabetes and rheumatoid arthritis Genetics Viral or bacterial infection Certain types of medicines Two common types of thyroiditis are Hashimoto's disease and postpartum thyroiditis.
The thyroid gland is a butterfly-shaped gland located in the low anterior neck. It produces thyroid hormone, which helps to regulate the body’s metabolism. The functional capacity of the thyroid is measured by blood tests. Excessive production of thyroid hormone (hyperthyroidism) can cause palpitations, tremors, weight loss, and heat intolerance. Conversely, an under-active thyroid gland (hypothyroidism) can result in fatigue, weight gain, and cold intolerance.
FINE NEEEDLE ASPIRATION BIOPSY OF THYROID NODULES
One of the major advances in the treatment of thyroid nodules over the past 25 years has been the adoption of fine needle aspiration (FNA) as a screening tool to help determine when thyroidectomy is required. Thyroid nodules are extremely common but only approximately 10% of all nodules are cancerous. While advanced malignancies are usually readily apparent, most benign and malignant nodules cannot be differentiated on the basis of examination alone.
The parathyroid glands are tiny glands in the neck that help to regulate the level of serum calcium. These glands are found behind the thyroid gland. When the blood calcium level drops, the parathyroid glands release parathyroid hormone (PTH), which helps to raise the level of serum calcium. Once the serum calcium level returns to normal, PTH production usually stops. In hyperparathyroidism one or more parathyroid glands become independent and continue to produce PTH. As a result, the serum calcium climbs. The resulting hypercalcemia can result in metabolic complications such as kidney stones, osteoporosis, brittle bones that can easily fracture, and abdominal pain. The most common symptom of hyperparathyroidism is probably fatigue, however, since there are so many other potential causes for fatigue, you can never be certain if it is parathyroid-related until after surgery. Some patients with hyperparathyroidism are completely asymptomatic.
A complete ENT exam and testing will help determine if one or more of the parathyroid glands need to be removed to correct hypercalcemia.